Main article: Siege of Yorktown Washington closed the address by reflecting on his legacy: 5.2 Defense of the war War of 1812. When Lincoln was assassinated in Ford's Theater in April 1865 thousands flocked into Washington to view the coffin further raising the profile of the city the new president Andrew Johnson wanted to dispel the funereal atmosphere and organized a program of victory parades which revived public hopes for the future; 2.2 California On May 8 Zachary Taylor and 2,400 troops arrived to relieve the fort. However General Arista rushed north and intercepted him with a force of 3,400 at Palo Alto the U.S Army employed "flying artillery" their term for horse artillery a type of mobile light artillery that was mounted on horse carriages with the entire crew riding horses into battle it had a devastating effect on the Mexican army in contrast to the "flying artillery" of the Americans the Mexican cannons at the Battle of Palo Alto fired at such slow velocities that it was possible for American soldiers to dodge artillery rounds the Mexicans replied with cavalry skirmishes and their own artillery the U.S flying artillery somewhat demoralized the Mexican side and seeking terrain more to their advantage the Mexicans retreated to the far side of a dry riverbed (resaca) during the night it provided a natural fortification but during the retreat Mexican troops were scattered making communication difficult. The successful reunification of the states had consequences for the name of the country the term "the United States" has historically been used sometimes in the plural ("these United States") and other times in the singular without any particular grammatical consistency the Civil War was a significant force in the eventual dominance of the singular usage by the end of the 19th century, Free states in early 1850 See also: List of countries with multiple capitals. Museums 13 Notes During the Reconstruction Era from January 1 1863 to March 31 1877 federal troops were stationed in the south specifically to protect black rights and prevent them from being re-enslaved However in the Gilded Age that followed the withdrawal blacks were left at the mercy of the whites When African Americans in the South no longer had the protection of federal troops whites imposed laws to prevent them from voting restrict their movement and found other ways to practice involuntary servitude. .
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